An overview of the concept of trip of the drug effect

Abstract Therapeutic drug monitoring TDM is the clinical practice of measuring specific drugs at designated intervals to maintain a constant concentration in a patient's bloodstream, thereby optimizing individual dosage regimens. It is unnecessary to employ TDM for the majority of medications, and it is used mainly for monitoring drugs with narrow therapeutic ranges, drugs with marked pharmacokinetic variability, medications for which target concentrations are difficult to monitor, and drugs known to cause therapeutic and adverse effects. The process of TDM is predicated on the assumption that there is a definable relationship between dose and plasma or blood drug concentration, and between concentration and therapeutic effects. TDM begins when the drug is first prescribed, and involves determining an initial dosage regimen appropriate for the clinical condition and such patient characteristics as age, weight, organ function, and concomitant drug therapy.

An overview of the concept of trip of the drug effect

It is thought LSD causes it's characteristic hallucinogenic effects via interaction with the serotonin receptors in the brain. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that helps control your behavior and mood, governs your senses, and moderates you thoughts.

The physical effects of LSD are unpredictable from person-to-person, and no one knows if they will have a good or bad "trip.

Use by the intravenous IV route will produce a much quicker action, usually within 10 minutes. If taken in large enough doses, the drug produces delusions and visual hallucinations.

Overdose can lead to severe psychosis. The physical effects can also include nausea, loss of appetite, increased blood sugar, difficulty sleeping, dry mouth, tremors and seizures. The user may also experience impaired depth and time perception, with distorted perception of the size and shape of objects, movements, color, sound, touch and own body image.

Sensations may seem to "cross over," giving the feeling of hearing colors and seeing sounds. These changes can be frightening and can cause panic.

Some LSD users also experience severe, terrifying thoughts and feelings, fear of losing control, fear of insanity and death. An experience with LSD is referred to as a "trip" and acute, disturbing psychological effects as a "bad trip".

An overview of the concept of trip of the drug effect

These experiences are lengthy, with the effects of higher doses lasting for 6 to 12 hours, and it may take 24 hours to return to a normal state. Health Hazards and Flashbacks with LSD Under the influence of LSD, the ability to make sensible judgments and see common dangers is impaired, making the user susceptible to personal injury, which can be fatal.

After an LSD trip, the user may suffer acute anxiety or depression, and may also experience flashbacks also called hallucinogen persisting perception disorderwhich are recurrences of the effects of LSD days or even months after taking the last dose. A flashback occurs suddenly, often without warning, usually in people who use hallucinogens chronically or have an underlying personality problem.

Healthy people who use LSD only occasionally may also have flashbacks. Bad trips and flashbacks are only part of the risks of LSD use. LSD users may also manifest relatively long-lasting psychoses, such as schizophrenia or severe depression.

Some users who take the drug repeatedly must take progressively higher doses to achieve the state of intoxication that they had previously achieved.

This is an extremely dangerous practice, given the unpredictability of the drug. In those 12 and older, lifetime estimates were 9. These last three estimates had held steady over the previous year.Overview of Ecstasy Ecstasy is the more common street name for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine—a substituted amphetamine drug also known as MDMA.

This is a synthetic chemical, with complex effects that mimic both methamphetamine link url stimulants and mescaline hallucinogens.

This is really important for drugs that are highly protein bound: if a drug is 97% bound to albumin and there is a 3% reduction in binding (displaced by another Solution Summary The concepts of bound drug and free drug are given. To find more about a drug's side effects, look on the label of over-the-counter (OTC) products or on package inserts or printed materials that you get with prescription drugs.

FACTORS GOVERNING DRUG ACTION. All drugs are chemicals but not all chemicals are drugs. For a drug to produce a physiologic effect it must first bind to a receptor. Two factors, related to the chemical nature of a drug, determine the interaction of drugs with receptors and hence the effect a drug will have on physiologic processes. In the U.S., LSD is illegal and is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as a Schedule 1 drug, meaning the LSD has a high potential for abuse, it has no currently accepted medical treatment use in the U.S., and it has a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision. Mar 06,  · Drug interactions, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, age, bacterial resistance, and protein binding are some factors that modify the effect of the parent drug for a given drug plasma concentration if total drug concentration is measured.

Because the inserts. Nonionic surfactant vesicular systems, otherwise known as niosomes, are a novel and efficient approach to drug delivery.

Their vesicular membrane is mainly composed of nonionic surfactants and cholesterol and the enclosed interior usually contains a buffer solution at appropriate pH. Mar 06,  · Drug interactions, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, age, bacterial resistance, and protein binding are some factors that modify the effect of the parent drug for a given drug plasma concentration if total drug concentration is measured.

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