Search Gender Differences in Crime Crime is an offense, eyed as an illegal component in the society. In criminology, women always received less importance than men. Studies relating women and crime gathered prominence only from s Aiken,
The link between gender and crime The link between gender and crime. Official statistics show that overall males commit or, are charged with, more crimes than females Scottish Prison Service, However it has also been shown, that in certain areas of criminality such as theft and fraud, female offence rates seem to be rising faster than males.
The reason for this apparent discrepancy in criminality between the genders is the subject of much debate and ongoing research with in Forensic Psychology and for both psychologists and sociologists and.
In particular, the increased growth of female crime in direct proportion to male crime, is highly contested by both disciplines with regards to its causation and existence.
Research into causes of crime and gender have produced differing explanations. These range from proposals such as the rise in female criminality is merely an artefact of reporting and prosecuting procedures, to biological and sex role theories of crime, which attempt to depict females as being fundamentally different in nature, thus less likely than males to commit crime.
Alternatively, power control models such as Hagan et al or control models like Carlen or Heidensohn and also masculinity theories, consider how differing socialization of the genders may have an effect on the individuals perception, with regards to all aspects of crime.
In these theories, the expansion of criminality by females are often explained as having emerged through their adherence to their social roles in a changing world or, their denunciation of it.
For instance, Heidensohn proposes this may have arisen from the recognition of the bias of the system. However in contrast to these theories, feminist perspectives argue, that all investigation is detrimentally limited through being influenced by gender blindness which inevitably dictates that investigation will be flawed.
They argue that to carry out research into criminality with men being the basis of investigation, upon which findings it is thought we can simply expand upon, is to completely miss the point. It seeks to evaluate current research both in its own right and also as a contribution to our understanding of the topic or strengthening the relevant arguments.
Whilst finally, it seeks to identify and assess further areas for research. It is a common media perception that the changes in female attitudes, particularly the emergence of the ladette culture daily record are an indication of a dramatic shift in female ideology and roles.
This has culminated in the popular belief that through the expansion and liberation of the female role, women are seen to be becoming not only more like men but "getting badder".
This view of change in females, has been linked not only to the emergence of feminism Adler but is also considered to be the result of economic development Steffensmeir et al b. In a study that utilized Interpol data from 69 countries, Steffensmeir evaluated four alternative hypotheses regarding the possible relationship between development and a rise in female arrest rates.
He found that if the results are more effectively controlled for variables of female status, economic marginality, opportunity for traditional female consumer crime and the formalisation of social control, then the relationship between female arrest rates and development are greatly weakened.
For example, upon considering the influence of the equalization of the gender roles as being causational in the rise of female arrest rates, he suggests that in general research has typically only looked at or indeed highlighted the countries that suit the equation.
For instance, whilst female arrest rates in the developing nation of sri lanka are lower than in many developed nations such as the USA, nevertheless the research has made no attempt to explain contradictory evidence such as Denmark, which has lower female arrest rates than many of the developing countries.
Furthermore, he proposes that these such studies have assumed equality has a symbiotic relationship with development or the western world. Such approaches he argues are over simplistic, as this method of data collection is not only crude but is inevitably skewed by additional variables which also relate to economic development.
He proposes that the few studies which have evaluated increased female status and criminality which use alternative measures, such as education participation levels for females rather than development as a basis, have failed to support this theory Bowker ; Hartnagel ; Messner Steffensmeir acknowledges however these studies are limited in sample size.
What is more this theory is flawed as it assumes that through development women are economic beneficiaries, however, he points out that often women are in fact marginalized, as commonly development acts to reduce female economic status and indeed serves only to increase economic vulnerability for large segments of the population Bowker Through development, economic pressures on women are aggravated by factors such as divorce, illegitimate children and female headed households, Steffensmeir points out this is coupled with an increased segregation of the labour market which forces women into low paid female occupations thus greater inequality for women in income distribution.
However on consideration of these issues, development could therefore be said to be inadvertently increasing female criminality in areas of traditional female crime.
For example, theft and fraud the consumer based crimes, may arise from economic marginality not benefits, as the original theory predicts. They suggested that recession and economic marginality of women could account for any increase in female crime and not liberation or changes in the female role.
Steffensmeir proposes that whilst the opportunities for both male and female crime increase with development, it is the female who has gained greater opportunity through the changes in economic transactions.Through the study of gender, crime, and victimization, feminist scholars refocused attention on male offenders and the role played by male gender expectations in crime.
Again, much of criminological thought has taken for granted that criminal behavior is simply male criminal behavior. Methodology This study examines the gender differences in crime based on various factors such as crime and criminality, biological, social and cultural factors, social cognition, political-legal acts, etc.
. Outline and assess sociological explanations for gender differences in patterns of crime. In recent years, based on the official statistics collected and recorded by the police, the number of people committing crime has increased rapidly.
Sociological Explanations of Gender Differences in Crime Rates. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON. Sociological Explanations of Gender Differences in Crime Rates. assuming it is a male phenomenon. So to successfully assess why there are gender differences in crime rates we must first find out why sociology ignores .
Gender and Sexuality in Crime Tv The portrayal of gender and sexuality in crime television has evolved over the past six decades.
Some aspects stayed the same while others have changed for various reasons, ranging from . Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess explanations for apparent gender differences in involvement in crime (21 marks) Official records show an overwhelming predominance of males compared with females committing crimes.