Historical linguistics and History of English grammars Grammars evolve through usage and also due to separations of the human population. With the advent of written representationsformal rules about language usage tend to appear also.
Schunk Chapter in R. At the turn of the 20th century, when American psychology began to take its place among the other academic disciplines, there was much interest in the role that self-beliefs play in human conduct. Also critical to the quest for understanding self-processes were the writings of psychoanalysts such as Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, who framed the self as the regulating center of an individual's personality and shed light on self-processes under the guise of id, ego, and superego functioning.
Erik Erikson later focused on critical aspects of self to trace adolescents' development of their ego identity.
Notwithstanding the efforts of James, the psychoanalysts, and other proponents of self-study, psychologists espousing a behaviorist orientation swelled their ranks by pointing out that only a person's tangible, observable, and measurable behavior was fit for scientific inquiry.
When the smoke cleared, the behaviorism of John Watson and later B. Skinner carried the day. Psychology was redirected, attention was turned to observable stimuli and responses, and the inner life of the individual was labeled as beyond the scope of scientific psychology.
Coinciding with the zenith of behavioristic influence came what is now often referred to as the "humanistic revolt" in psychology.
Apprehensive about what they considered the narrow and passive view of human functioning that behaviorism represented, a group of psychologists called for renewed attention to inner experience, to internal processes, and to self-beliefs e.
During the s and s there was a resurgence of interest in self-beliefs, most notably an effort by many educators and psychologists to promote an emphasis on the importance of a healthy and positive self-esteem.
Also born in American schools at about this time was the self-enhancement view of academic functioning, that is, the view that, because a child's self-esteem is the critical ingredient and primary cause of academic achievement, teacher practices and academic strategies should be aimed at fostering students' self-esteem.
Through the years, American schools have followed the prescriptions of psychologists. After all, teachers are trained in the universities that spawn these psychological movements. It was unavoidable that when American psychology lost interest in self-beliefs from early to mid-century so did American education.
It was also unavoidable that when humanistic psychology reclaimed the self and began a crusade of sorts that emphasized promoting self-esteem as the primary vehicle toward personal growth, education also followed suit.
But the humanistic crusade had profoundly uneven results, and many laudable but misguided efforts to nurture the self-esteem of children fell prey to excesses and, ultimately, ridicule see Beane, ; Kohn, Adding to these uneven results was the troublesome fact that research on the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement either was inconclusive or provided unsettling results.
One analysis of self-esteem studies revealed that correlations between self-esteem and academic achievement ran the gamut from a positive. What followed was not only a reduced interest in self-research in education but a backlash against the "self-esteem movement" itself.
During the s, educators shifted their interest in motivation toward cognitive processes and information-processing views of human functioning. This "cognitive revolution," as it has come to be called, was influenced by technological advances and by the advent of the computer, which served as the movement's signature metaphor and model of mind.
In education, this new wave of theorists and researchers emphasized internal, mental events, but the emphasis was primarily on cognitive tasks rather than on exploring issues related to the influence of students' self-beliefs in schooling.
Again, schools followed suit. Research on students' self-beliefs in education did not merely wane; it was viewed as antithetical to sound educational understandings as a type of "psychology-lite" undertaking. In the back-to-basics national mood, students' emotional concerns were regarded as irrelevant to their academic achievement.
Reforms were accompanied by an effort to dictate curricular practices according to their success in raising achievement test results.
Fortunately, prominent voices in educational psychology have signaled a shift in focus as regards the issues critical to human functioning, and students' self-beliefs have once again become the subject of research on academic motivation.
The shift has been so successful that, after a thorough analysis of the state of knowledge related to theories and principles of academic motivation for the Handbook of Educational Psychology, Sandra Graham and Bernard Weiner observed that "the self is on the verge of dominating the field of motivation" p.
This focus on a student's sense of self as a principal component of academic motivation is grounded on the taken-for-granted assumption that the beliefs that students create, develop, and hold to be true about themselves are vital forces in their success or failure in school.Go to: Longman Academic Writing 1 Longman Academic Writing 2 Longman Academic Writing 3 Longman Academic Writing 4 Longman Academic Writing 5 Go to: Components A step-by-step approach guides students through the writing process, from pre-writing to .
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