What sphinx of cement and aluminum bashed open their skulls and ate up their brains and imagination? Ashcans and unobtainable dollars!
The water must be free of pollutants and excess sediments, and in the face of global climate change, not too warm, or in the case of our oceans, too acidified.
If this is what a healthy commons needs, how do we avoid the tragedy? During the summer when the creek was low, a deep pool formed a pond that I shared, begrudgingly, with other kids itching to fish.
Over the course of the summer the pond coughed up fewer and fewer fish. The irony of my competing for this diminishing population of fish was that my neighbor who owned the creek-turned pond, Professor Garrett Hardin, would soon publish the world's most famous article on competition for a common resource.
A Google Scholar search reveals that the publication has been cited over 27, times since its appearance in the literature almost half a century ago.
Hardin used the example of herders exploiting the same pasture to graze their cattle to illustrate the inevitable collapse that befalls a common resource shared by individuals looking out for their own individual good.
The basic tenet of The Tragedy of the Commons has been applied widely to models in economics, game theory, sociology, and ecology, among a variety of other topics and disciplines. Fishing, too, both recreational and commercial, is inherently well suited to Hardin's famous axiom. The aquatic commons that harbor our world's fish, whether pond, lake, stream, river, bay or ocean, are largely subject to the same set of criteria that ensure sustainable recreational and commercial fisheries.
Each commons must provide a healthy place for fish to live with adequate refuge from predators, for prey to consume and for appropriate habitat so species can reproduce.
Sustainable commons are free from poachers. This applies equally to fly fishers who take home more trout than permitted by law and to developed countries whose factory fleets are increasingly invading two-hundred nautical mile exclusive zones to deplete third-world countries of their fisheries.
Coordinated management of a commons must happen, with fishers vying for limited fishing rights based on the unique life history of a given species and its rate of growth, age and size at reproductive maturity, and numbers of offspring. In addition, management of a commons is not possible without accurate reporting of catch data.
Unfortunately, even today some developed countries routinely underreport their annual catch to the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization FAO that oversees global fisheries.
Fisheries associated with various commons have long suffered from overfishing or environmental stressors. A century ago sturgeon was so abundant that fishermen complained about the fish slashing their nets; they tossed them out as by-catch.
Later, the fish were harvested in vast quantities for their flesh and roe. Today, sturgeon are largely endangered, victim to both overfishing and the damming of rivers that reduces their spawning success.
Atlantic cod have followed a similar fate, infamously overexploited in Newfoundland and then more recently, in the Bay of Maine. In the latter instance, both heavy fishing pressure and rapid climate warming have been implicated in the demise of the fishery.
Antarctic toothfish have largely disappeared from regions of the Ross Sea, coincident with the onset of a recent fishery. Here, similar to the Patagonia toothfish, whose fate was largely sealed when renamed the more delectable "Chilean Seabass," slow growth and a long life span with late reproduction spelled trouble.
Bluefin tuna have become so precious a commodity in a single fish sold for 1. Despite such challenges, hope for sustainable fisheries exists when commons are properly managed.
The New Zealand blue cod fishery has licensed fishing rights and quotas set collectively by fishing companies and government fishery officials.
Cod are taken by hook and line rather than bottom trawling or long-lining, two techniques destructive to habitat and to other species of fish. My favorite example of a sustainable fishery is not for fish, but rather Florida stone crabs.
Stone crabs are harvested seasonally and only one claw above a certain size can be removed. Crabbers must then return the crab to the sea. Rapid regeneration of the claw results in a crab ready to make another donation the next year.
Other sustainable fisheries include the meticulously managed Alaskan herring fishery and the hugely successful largemouth bass recreational fisheries that have spread around the globe. All of these fisheries share attributes of a sustainable commons: With guidance from organizations such as the FAO, these practices can rejuvenate depleted fisheries; particularly in third world countries where fisheries are often small scale yet important to the local economy.
As my boyhood summers ended and early fall brought rain to Santa Barbara, the fishing pond reconnected to a flowing creek. The fresh creek water rejuvenated the pond, carrying away wastes and recharging the water with nutrients and oxygen.It is through the theories of the tragedy of the commons and environmental rights that we realize that all of society is invading one another's environmental rights through the tragedy of the commons.
This is done very inconspicuously in some cases such as that of the Coral Reefs. Ah, but super-human AI is not the only way Moloch can bring our demise.
How many such dangers can your global monarch identify in time? EMs, nanotechnology, memetic contamination, and all the other unknown ways we’re running to the bottom.
It is through the theories of the tragedy of the commons and environmental rights that we realize that all of society is invading one another’s environmental rights through the tragedy of the commons.
This is done very inconspicuously in some cases such as that of the Coral Reefs. Richard III is a historical play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written around It depicts the Machiavellian rise to power and subsequent short reign of King Richard III of England.
The play is grouped among the histories in the First Folio and is most often classified as such. Occasionally, however, as in the quarto edition, it is termed a tragedy.
The Tragedy Of The Commons Words | 11 Pages. that are important to understanding human-environment relations, the most significant would have to be the tragedy of the commons.
Before explaining why that may be, understanding what the tragedy of the commons is will help give a better understanding to its’ significance. Tragedy of the Commons Essays; Tragedy of the Commons Essays.
Words 4 Pages. Garrett Hardin’s article “The Tragedy of the Commons” illustrates the continuing problem of the commons. The article clearly illustrates the effects of the exponentially increasing population such as pollution and food. The tragedy of the commons invading.